RISK FACTORS FOR CERVICAL CANCER

hpv-kling2ALAN KLING, M.D

Dr. Kling is a recognized expert in the field of HPV treatment, Dr. Kling has lectured on HPV at Columbia, Cornell, Mount Sinai, NYU, Yale and many other medical centers, as well as at numerous national meetings. He is up-to-date on the latest advances in the diagnosis and treatment of HPV. Dr. Kling is the recognized go-to-person for HPV-related diagnoses in the metropolitan NYC area.
Dr. Kling’s private practice offices are located on the Upper East Side in Manhattan and in Park Slope, Brooklyn. The offices are comfortable, stylish, elegantly decorated and impeccably clean. You can feel reassured that your consultation and treatment will be performed by an accomplished, experienced, and well-respected board-certified physician.

Q: Do birth control pills increase the risk for a woman of developing an HPV infection?
A: Women who use birth control pills have a small increased change of developing an HPV infection.

Q: Which woman are at greatest risk of developing an HPV infection while on birth control pills?
A: Young women who started taking birth control pills before they were 20 years old and who took them for more than 5 years are at greater risk of developing an HPV infection.

Q: How does the birth control pill increase a woman’ s chances of getting an HPV infection?
A: Chronic exposure over many years to estrogens makes the cervix more vulnerable to being infected by HPV. Sexual behavior in women who are less than 20 years old is frequently associated with multiple partners and non-protected sex, and this group is also more likely to be on the birth control pill.

Q: Are the chances of getting a cancer from an HPV infection increased by smoking?
A: The chances of HPV infections progressing into cancer are increased in women who smoke and in women who are exposed to second-hand smoke.

Q: Does smoking increase the chances of developing HPV-related cancers?
A: Smoking does increase the chances of developing HPV-related cancers. Cancers caused by HPV include cancers of the cervix, anus, rectum, vulva, vagina, penis, and the oropharynx.

Q: What is the association between smoking and HPV infections progressing into cervical cancer?
A: A The association between cigarette smoking and cancer of the cervix is strong. The combination of cigarette smoking and a high risk HPV infection dramatically increases the chance of getting cancer of the cervix.

Q: How much does smoking increase a women’s chances of getting cervical cancer?
A: Women who smoked and are positive for the high-risk HPV16 were 14x more likely to get cervical cancer than women who smoke who were negative for HPV16. Women who did not smoke and were positive for HPV16 had a 6x increase in the risk of cervical cancer when compared to women who did not smoke and were negative for HPV.

Q: What was the conclusion of that study?
A: The study concluded that the increased chance of a woman developing a cervical cancer if she was positive for HPV 16 went from a baseline risk of 6: 1 to 14: 1 and that this increased risk was caused by smoking. The chances of a woman developing cervical cancers decreases after she stops smoking.

Q: Will a woman’s chance of developing cervical cancer decrease if they stop smoking?
A: The association of HPV and smoking is greater in current smokers when compared to former smokers. The risk of developing cervical cancer decreases the longer the period of time that has gone by since the woman last smoked.

Q: Are a woman’s chances of getting cervical cancer related to how much they smoke?
A: There is a greater risk for a woman to develop a cervical cancer who smoke more cigarettes per day compared to women who smoke fewer cigarettes per day.

Q: Does the length of time that a woman smoked influence their chances of getting cervical cancer?
A: The association of HPV and smoking increases with the total number of pack years smoked. The highest risk of cervical cancer were found in women who smoked for at least 5 years, were positive for HPV16 infections and had not yet had their first Pap smear compared to those who smoked for a long period of time and were HPV negative.

Q: Is smoking a risk factor for getting an HPV in men?
A: Smoking has been associated with persistence of HPV infections as well as with the development of cancers of the cervix, anus, rectum and in the oral cavity.

Q: What is the association between genital warts and smoking?
A: There is a higher incidence of genital warts in men who smoke over 10 cigarettes/day.

Q: en and his female partner’s chances of getting cervical cancer?
A: A woman’ s chance of developing cervical cancer increases when her partner smokes.

Q: What is the effect of the passive inhalation of second hand smoke on a woman s chance of developing cervical cancer?
A: Second-hand smoke increases the chances of a woman developing cervical cancer.

Q: What if the woman is herself a smoker?
A: The passive inhalation of tobacco increases a woman’ s chances of developing cervical cancer, even after adjusting for the woman’ s own smoking history and other factors known to be associated with cervical cancer.

Q: How does smoking affect a woman’s chances of developing cervical cancer?
A: Active smoking as well as second-hand smoke will increase a woman’ s chances of getting cervical cancer. The woman’ s chances of developing cervical cancer will decrease if her exposure to second hand smoke decrease, whether that second hand smoke exposure is from a partner or in a work or social environment.

Q: What happens to a woman’s chances of getting cervical cancer if she stops smoking?
A: A woman’ s chances of getting cervical cancer as well as other HPV-related diseases will decrease after she stops smoking. The chances of developing cervical cancer will also go decrease if she minimizes or eliminates her exposure to second-hand smoke.

Q: Does smoking increase a woman’s chances of getting an HPV infection?
A: Smoking increases a person’ s chances of getting an HPV infection.

Q: How does smoking increase your chances of getting an HPV infection?
A: Smoking weakens the immune system and increases a person’ s vulnerability against infection. Nicotine and other gases in cigarette smoke are toxic and cause abnormal cells on the cervix. These atypical changes in the cervical cells are called dysplasia.

Q: How is the increased risk of developing cervical cancer in smokers related to the amount that they smoke?
A: The increased risk is related to the number of cigarettes a person smokes as well as how long they have been smoking. Women who smoke and who have an HPV infections are at significantly increased risk of developing cervical cancer compared to women who do not smoke who have an HPV infection.

Q: Are my chances of getting an HPV infection increased by having unprotected sex?
A: The chances of acquiring an HPV infection are substantially increased by having unprotected sex.

Q: Will condoms protect me from getting an HPV infection?
A: Condoms will significantly decrease your chances of getting an HPV infection. Condoms are the best barrier method of protection which against HPV infections.

Q: How much will condoms decrease the chances of a person from getting or giving somebody an HPV infection?
A: Condoms reduce the incidence of HPV transmission by over 70%.

Q: Do condoms offer any protection to a woman if she already has an HPV infection?
A: The use of condoms can decrease the chances of a recurrence in women who have already been treated for an HPV infection.

Q: How do they know that condoms will decrease a woman’s chances of getting a recurrence of her HPV infection?
A: A study was performed that studied women who were treated for an HPV infection. The sexual partners of half of the women in the study used condoms during their future sexual contacts and the other half did not. The women whose partners used condoms had a statistically significantly lower chance of getting a recurrence of an HPV infection compared to those women whose partners did not use condoms.

Q: Will condoms prevent HPV infections?
A: Condoms will significantly decrease the chance of acquiring an HPV infection for both men and women. Condoms are not perfect and cannot offer 100%, but remain the most effective means of prevention available other than abstinence.

Q: How effective are condoms?
A: Condoms are the best barrier method of protection available. A study demonstrated that women whose partners use condoms 100% of the time for an 8 month period of time were 70% less likely to acquire new infections compared to woman whose partners used condoms less than 5% of the time. Women whose partners use condoms 50% of the time were 50% less likely to have an HPV infection than those who rarely used condoms.

Q: Do condoms help prevent infection with both the high and low risk strains?
A: Consistent condom use reduced the risk of acquiring both high-risk and low-risk HPV types. This decreased risk of infection resulted in a decrease in the incidence of risk for developing genital warts as well as HPV-related cancers.

Q: Will condoms decrease the chances of my getting an HPV infection if I was already exposed to somebody who had it?
A: The consistent use of condoms helps clear HPV-related changes on both the cervix and on the penis. Condoms also shorten the time needed to clear an HPV infection.

Q: Will condoms help a woman has already been diagnosed and/or treated for an HPV infection?
A: Women who were diagnosed and treated for an HPV infection whose partners subsequently use condoms are less likely to get a recurrence of an HPV infection than those women whose partners did not use condoms.

Q: Do condoms help prevent HPV?
A: Condoms can significantly reduce the risk of the transmission of the HPV virus.

Q: How do condoms work to prevent HPV infections?
A: Condoms provide a physical barrier that prevents transmission of the HPV infection.

Q: How do condoms work to help prevent HPV infections?
A: Condoms work as a barrier method. They can only prevent transmission from those areas which are covered by the condom. Condoms will most effectively protect transmission of an infection from the head and upper shaft of the penis.

Q: What are the circumstances when condoms will not work as well?
A: Condoms can ride up on the shaft of the penis during intercourse and the base of the penis will then be exposed and will not be protected. Areas that are not covered by a condom like the pubic area, groin, scrotum, thighs and abdomen will not be protected. Condoms can also break and both the person wearing the condom and their partner will then not be protected when this occurs.

Q: It sound like many things can go wrong with condoms, doesn’t it?
A: Nonetheless, condoms remain the single most effective way to prevent HPV infections other than abstinence.

Q: What is the association between condom use and HPV?
A: Consistent condom use is associated with a lower chance of getting an HPV infection.

Q: What are the important risk factors for HPV persistence in men?
A: Current smoking, having high-risk HPV strains and/or multiple HPV types are the most important risk factors for HPV persistence in men.

Q: How will stress affect my HPV infection?
A: Stress can weaken your immune system and can increase your chances of getting a recurrence by allowing the reactivation of an old HPV infection which may have been dormant.

Q: How will stress affect my chances of acquiring a new HPV infection?
A: Stress depresses your immunity and decreases your resistance to infections, which will make you more likely to acquire a new HPV infection rom a strain to which you previously had not been exposed.